Wednesday, October 9, 2013

Yamaha TTR250 Service/Repair Manual

Repair manual for yamaha TTR250
Users TTR250 Yamaha motorcycles in particular, it is definitely in need owner manual, is to understand the vehicle closer. however the owners manual is included so you bought this motorcycle, namn not for special repair guide because only a trained mechanic. repair manual for yamaha TTR250 can be found on this page if you want to know how to do the repairs yourself. however this is not recommended unless you have knowledge in the field of engineering machinery.

 if you want to have a repair manual yamaha TTR250 can be found on this page, we do not encourage you to do the repairs yourself. ask for help from a trained mechanic in order to work your workshop going well
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Suzuki SQ416/SQ420 Service manual


Perhaps many of the mechanics that still need improvement guide for suzuki sq416/sq420 and there is no harm in this time I shared about this guide. explanation you'll find is an update to the machine, the introduction and improvement of AC / compreson, carburetor, wheel arrangement, power sterring and much more.

This repair guide picture comes up support will facilitate you in understanding the content of the point that there are trees in it. Nor shall do his alone unless you know what you're doing. always be careful. Part demolition offense for or other machine will make the situation more seriously so earn understand first before you do it. to get this repair guide for suzuki sq416/sq420 vitara can be found on this page
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Repair manual Suzuki Vitara SQ420WD


looking for repair manual Suzuki SQ420WD? This post concerns about how to do your own repairs on Suzuki SQ420WD may be on other sites you've got it but not complete, here I share where you can get this repair guide, Suzuki arguably SQ420WD old car, but it is still popular till now, although present new car , suzuki sq420 users still remain loyal to their vehicles.

at this repair guide you'll find information about the engine, timing belt, ac, carburator etc. related to improvement. if you are a beginner, be sure not to do the demolition yourself unless accompanied by a trained mechanic. My suggestion was to minimize the extent of damage that can be severe. get a repair manual for the Suzuki SQ420WD can be found on this page
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Thursday, September 19, 2013

Blower Circuits Diagram On Mazda

Below is a guide to Blower on mazda, please note that the system is similar to mazda cooling system in general.


1. Draw in BLUE the BLOWER CIRCUIT with the BLOWER in the LOW SPEED position.
2. Draw in GREEN the BLOWER CIRCUIT with the BLOWER in M1 SPEED position.
3. Draw in ORANGE the BLOWER CIRCUIT with the BLOWER in HIGH SPEED position.
4. Explain the difference between the HI SPEED circuit and ALL OTHER SPEEDS.






COOLING FANS / BLOWER ON MAZDA

1. The HIGH SPEED blower works but none of the other speeds work.
Trace in RED the area(s) that could be at fault.
2. The LOW SPEED blower does not work. All other speeds work correctly.
Trace in BLUE the area(s) that could be at fault.
3. None of the blower speeds work. The A/C switch does light up when pushed.
Trace in GREEN the area(s) that could be at fault.
4. The ML (medium Low) speed does not work. All other speeds function correctly..
Trace in ORANGE the area(s) that could be at fault
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Complete MAZDA Electrical Wiring Diagram

 Complete MAZDA Electrical Wiring Diagram
This guide was developed by Kevin R. Sullivan will be found in this guide is about Understanding Diagrams, Lighting Systems, Headlights, Turnsignals & Hazard, Stop Lights, Backup / Horn and many more. I have not had time to review the manual but you can download it here Complete MAZDA Electrical Wiring Diagram get here
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Maytag Refrigerator wiring diagram


Still on the wiring diagram, in this discussion bnyak request to me to find MAYTAG refrigerator wiring diagram and I was lucky to find it for you. so no need to search anymore because I was able to and share here. to get a picture with large size please click on picture to clarify the diagram when there is a need to ask can contact via contact form.
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Mazda b2600i Wiring diagram guide

Mazda b2600i Wiring diagram guide

Mazda b2600i Wiring diagram guide

Owner manual for mazda b2600i I have provided in my previous post this time sharing about B2600i mazda wiring diagram which of course would be required if you are the owner of the vehicle brand.

review contained in such diagrams and explanations which the location of the main battery fuse and carburetor. the diagram is also described for the control unit, drl and rear wheel abs control unit, inhibitor switch, starter, ignition switch, engine control unit, ec-at control units, engine control units, circuit opening relay, drl and rear wheel abs control unit , alternator, alternator until the instrument clusters. I guess b2600i mazda wiring diagram can be beneficial to you.
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CQ Batteries Powersport Manual

CQ Batteries Powersport Manual
Use of motorcycle batteries in excess can lead to over-load or excess power and can lead to short-circuiting. Then a battery company never advised to use the battery outside the provisions of the many cases I took the initiative to share CQ Powersport Batteries Manual which guides the use of the book explains the good battery and safe.

I have read and take a review for SAFE CHARGING
Before beginning the charging operation, read and follow the instructions that come with the charger.
Never attempt to charge a battery without first reviewing the instructions for the charger being
used. In addition to the charger manufacturer’s instructions, these general precautions should be followed:
• Always charge batteries in a well-ventilated area and wear proper eye protection.
• Turn the charger and timer “OFF” before connecting the leads to the battery to avoid dangerous sparks.
• To avoid an explosion, never try to charge a visibly damaged or frozen battery.
• Connect the charger leads to the battery; red positive (+) lead to the positive (+) terminal and black negative (–) lead to the negative (–) terminal. If the battery is still in the vehicle, connect the negative lead to the engine block, away from the battery, to serve as a ground. (If the vehicle is positive grounded, connect the positive lead to the engine block.)
• Make sure that the leads to the connections are tight.
• Set the timer, turn the charger on and slowly increase the charging rate until the desired ampere value is reached.
• If the battery becomes hot or if violent gassing or spewing of electrolyte occurs, reduce the charging rate or temporarily halt the charger.
• Always turn the charger “OFF” before removing charger leads from the battery to avoid dangerous sparks.

you can download it on this page. remember that CQ Powersport Batteries Manual is available for free on the official website I did not save anything on the server. I hope my writing can bernfaat for those of you who are in need of information usage in particular CQ battery Powersport Batteries. 
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Diagram and factory carb specifications GSX-R 750

On the Gixxer.com forums Rob (Old Skool_R), has written a comprehensive guide to the introduction of the carburetor. and I am sure you will need his guide because it contains very helpful at all especially for the owners of Suzuki GSX-R. He describes in detail step by step how to perform maintenance and repairs on the carburetor.

if you want this guide can be found on this page, do not forget to visit the official page for lots of other interesting information that would be useful for you.
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1991 gsxr 750 Wiring diagrams

hello how are you and what your motorcycle reportedly also, if you are the owner of 1991 gsxr 750 and need a wiring diagram for your vehicle identification? if you have problems on a motorcycle repair shop that is certainly there in your mind. but if for trivial things such as the electrical system I think you are able to solve it yourself. and here I share a 1991 gsxr 750 wiring diagrams will help you know the parts of your motorcycle. take a look the the image below. hopefully can help.

1991 gsxr 750 wiring diagrams
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1980 C and K Model Fuse Blocks

1980 C and K Model Fuse Blocks

A - Choke
B - Fuse - Heater / Air Cond.
C - Receptacle - Accessory
D - Receptacle - Ignition ( key on power)
E - Fuse - Auxillary Heater / AC
F - Fuse - Instrument Cluster Feed (gauges)
H - Fuse - Tail Lights, Courtesy Lamps
I - Fuse - Wipers
J - Fuse - Horn
K - Receptacle - Power Accessories & other Accessories
L - Receptacle - Battery (constant power)
N - Not Used P - Fuse - Turn Signals, Reversing Lamps
R - Fuse - Fuse - Radio & TCS (Idle)
X - Receptacle - LOS
Z -Fuse - Stop (brake) Lights, Traffic Hazard Flashers

This is a continuation of a previous post about chevy fuse box diagram, and you can see below is the diagram for the model 1980 is a little different, but if you've experienced will not confuse you. I attach a joint statement. hopefully can help.
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Chevy/Chevrolet And GMC Fuse Box Diagram

Hi, today im gona tell you where fuse box located on chevy truck. most mechanic or personal person really ned this Chevy Fuse Box Diagram bicause it will tell lost of information about electrical on vehicle. mean this fuse can be center of all electrical.

really im not kidding, if you are owner of chevy truck you should be know what must to do if you got problem on light lamp right? im sure first you will check the fuse box. and hope can be done on that box lol.. take a look the diagram below
Chevrolet And GMC 1977 And 1980 C and K Model Fuse Blocks

A - Fuse - Traffic Hazard
B - Fuse - Tail, Stop Courtesy Lamps
C - Receptacle - TP2 /M40
D - Fuse - Radio & TCS
F - Receptacle - C91/UF2 (Cargo Area Lamp)/U35/U37
G - Fuse - Heater / Air Cond.
H - Receptacle - C62
I - Fuse - Accessory
J - Fuse - Panel Lights
K - Receptacle - NL2/A33/U16 (Tachometer)
M - Receptacle - Accessory Lamps
N - Not Used
O - Fuse - Reversing Lamps
P - Fuse - Instrument Cluster Feed
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Friday, April 19, 2013

Buick Verano Sound system & Owner Manual

Buick Verano Owner Manual
Buick Verano has 177 Horsepower 170 pound feet Torque 6 Speed Auto Produces 8.0 Second 0-60 All with 31 MPG. in 2012 this vehicle have Top Safety Pick. bicause have 10 standard air bags Verano earns the Insurance Institute For Highway Safety's. that all is the best for this vehicle. Incredible In Dash navigation and sound technology with remote smart phone start / power locks. It's like an i-Buick. so if you have a plan to have this Buick Verano thats is best choice.

then in this post we share about Buick Verano Owner Manual and maintenance schedule. but the fist if yo want a brochure can be found at here and also for 2013 Owner manual we found at this sourrce.

for The Bose® Sound System for the Buick Verano can be found at this source hope this post will usefull for you. we know this a bit and simple review for Buick Verano but its will make you know a bit about this car. happy nice days
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Rendezvous Owner Manual & Maintenance care

Rendezvous Owner Manual & Maintenance careThe 2006 Buick Rendezvous Owner Manual will teach you how to operate and maintenance manual when you add non-GM accessories to your vehicle they can affect your vehicle’s performance and safety, including such things as, braking, stability, ride and handling, emissions systems, aerodynamics, durability, and electronic systems like antilock brakes, traction control and stability control. Some of these accessories may even cause malfunction or damage not covered by warranty. GM Accessories are designed to complement and function with other systems on your vehicle. Your GM dealer can accessorize your vehicle using genuine GM Accessories.
Rendezvous repair service Owner Manual
this a little from the manual Buick Rendezvous When you go to your GM dealer and ask for GM Accessories, you will know that GM-trained and supported service technicians will perform the work using genuine GM Accessories. California Proposition 65 Warning Most motor vehicles, including this one, contain and/or emit chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. Engine exhaust, many parts and systems (including some inside the vehicle), many fluids, and some component wear by-products contain and/or emit these chemicals.

Rendezvous Owner Manual & Maintenance care can be found at here
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Monday, April 8, 2013

Disclaimer

Disclaimer Web Site Terms and Conditions of Use 1. Terms By accessing this web site, you are agreeing to be bound by these web site Terms and Conditions of Use, all applicable laws and regulations, and agree that you are responsible for compliance with any applicable local laws. If you do not agree with any of these terms, you are prohibited from using or accessing this site. The materials contained in this web site are protected by applicable copyright and trade mark law. 2. Use License A. Permission is granted to temporarily download one copy of the materials (information or pictures) on pictures artist’s web site for personal, non-commercial transitory viewing only. This is the grant of a license, not a transfer of title, and under this license you may not: * modify or copy the materials; * use the materials for any commercial purpose, or for any public display (commercial or non-commercial); * attempt to recompile or reverse engineer any software contained on pictures artist’s web site; * remove any copyright or other proprietary notations from the materials; or * transfer the materials to another person or “mirror” the materials on any other server. B. This license shall automatically terminate if you violate any of these restrictions and may be terminated by Pictures Artist at any time. Upon terminating your viewing of these materials or upon the termination of this license, you must destroy any downloaded materials in your possession whether in electronic or printed format. 3. Disclaimer A. The materials on www.1stmanual.blogspot.com are provided “as is”. Manual Guide makes no warranties, expressed or implied, and hereby disclaims and negates all other warranties, including without limitation, implied warranties or conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property or other violation of rights. Further, www.1stmanual.blogspot.com does not warrant or make any representations concerning the accuracy, likely results, or reliability of the use of the materials on its Internet web site or otherwise relating to such materials or on any sites linked to this site. For further information, please feel free to contact us using form we provided All Manual ebooks are the property of their respective owners. Manual does not host any of pdf ebooks on this site.
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Friday, January 4, 2013

Graphic Equalizer Schematic 10 band Mono

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-6XXxsoCmaTg/TeGGgZ9VXMI/AAAAAAAAC5s/Wy3Bs53wW8U/s200/10%2Bband%2BEqualizer%2BSchematic.gif

Graphic Equalizer Schematic
This really is ten band graphic equalizer for 1 channel (mono) audio program. You will need build 2 similiar circuits for 2 channel (stereo) audio method. This equalizer construct depending on TL074 low sound JFET op-amp that will give you top quality audio output.
Graphic Equalizer Schematic 10 band Mono Part List:

R1....20= 10KohmsC4= 10nF polyesterC18= 68pF polysterine
R21....40= 1MohmsC5= 47nF polyesterC19= 360pF polysterine
R41= 10KohmsC6= 4.7nF polyesterC20= 36pF polysterine
R42= 1KohmsC7= 22nF polyesterC21= 4.7uF polyester
R43.....52= 2.2KohmsC8= 2.2nF polyesterC22-23= 33pF polysterine
R53.....62= 47KohmsC9= 12nF polyesterC24= 10uF 25V
R63-64-66-67= 47KohmsC10= 1.2nF polyesterC25-26= 47uF 25V
R65= 10KohmsC11= 5.6nF polyesterC27...32= 47nF polyester
R68-69= 47 ohms 1/2WC12= 560pF polysterineIC1...3= TL074
RV1....10= 100Kohms lin FADERC13= 2.7nF polyesterS1= 2X4 SW for stereo
RV11= 10Kohms log.C14= 270pF polysterine
C1= 180nF polyesterC15= 1.5nF polyester
C2= 18nF polyesterC16= 150pF polysterine
C3= 100nF polyester C17= 680pF polysterine
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Mosfet Audio Amplifier 20W

Mosfet Audio Amplifier 20W

Mosfet Audio amplifier 20W schematic
This audio power amplifier makes use of two complementary MOSFETs (IRF9520 and IRF520) to supply up to 20W into eight O speaker. A TL071 op amp is utilized as an input amplifier. The MOSFETs should certainly be heatsinked having a heatsink of far better than 50C/W capability. THD is less than 0.15% from 100Hz to 10KHz.
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GSM CELL PHONE JAMMER SCHEMATIC


GSM CELL PHONE JAMMER CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC

A wonderful diy gsm jammer or cellular mobile phone jammer schematic diagram for use only in GSM1900 with frequency from 1930 MHz to 1990 MHz. The GSM1900 cellular cell phone network is made use of by USA, Canada and most of the nations in South America. This cellular phone jammer isn't applicable for use in Europe, Center East, nor Asia. The GSM jammer circuit could block mobile mobile phone signals which operates on GSM1900 band, also identified as DCS.
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NE 555 & LM 567 Remote Control Circuit

Remote control circuit consists of two parts, one is transmitter and the other is receiver. A simple diagram is schematic remote control. The transmitter circuit’s transmitter IC is controlled by NE555. Receiver circuit works by the signal emitted frequency which is emitted by that transmitter circuit. Transmitted signal frequency must be equal to the frequency decoder of the receiver circuit. The NE 555 generated frequency is same that receive frequency of IC LM 567. 




The output frequency of the transmitter circuit is f,

f = 1.44/(Ra+2Rb)C

 


           The resistor R1 is a receiver variable to facilitate the process of tuning. The system works well when the circuit is ready. The first step is tuning by way of the transmitter is turned on continuously, while the receiver R1 to set the value to be able to detect the signal transmitter. The second part is the receiver is controlled by LM 567. The following is a schematic drawing recipient.



f = 1 / (1.1 xR1xC1)

This frequency depends on the value of R1 and C1.



In the picture on top of each channel is designed with a different frequency. By considering the bandwidth of the frequency detection signal LM 567, inter-frequency channels should have a big enough difference, let’s try with a difference of 5 KHz.
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BC548 Heat Sensor Diagram Circuit


BC548 Heat Sensor Circuit


 


Heat sensor circuit can be used to control any device using heat sensor. In this circuit a thermistor and a resistance is connected in series. This arrangement makes a potential divider circuit. Here the thermistor is Negative Temperature Coefficient type. So when the room temperature is increased its resistance decreases simultaneously and more current flows through the resistor and the thermistor. We find more voltage at the junction of the resistor and the thermistor.



Our thermistor resistance value is 110 ohms. Suppose the resistance value becomes 90 ohms after heating the 110 ohms thermistor. Then the voltage across one resistor of the voltage divider circuit equals the ratio of that resistor’s value and the sum of resistances of the voltage across the series combination. This is the concept of voltage divider. The final output voltage of the voltage divider circuit is now applied to the npn transistor (BC548) through the base resistor (3.3K ohms). Here the emitter resistor is replaced with a zener diode. Emitter voltage is maintained at 4.7volt with the help of zener diode. This voltage is used to compare voltage. Transistor conducts when base voltage is greater than the emitter voltage. Transistor conducts if it gets more than 4.7volt of base voltage. Then the circuit is completed through buzzer and it gives sound.
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Basic Sound Generator Circuit Diagram

This is so important circuit for the persons who came to this field recently.Here I have used common IC NE555.According to the pules (Frequency) of the IC We can generate the sound.You can change the speed of the sound by adjusting R2.This circuit operates with 5V.



# Note
# Don't give over 5V
# Build this circuit on a PCB
# Don't give the much heat to the IC NE555

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(VHF) TV Transmitter circuit diagram

Most of people ask TV transmitters.So Today I'm going to give you a very useful circuit diagram.By using this circuit you can send your signals 75m to 100m.This circuit diagram is not my own circuit one of my friends gave me this.I suppose you guys also can send your own circuit diagrams for us.Then we can publish them through our website.Here They have used common transistor BC 108 If you are unable to find this transistor you can use equal transistors like Bc337 2n2222 Bc 546



Note
# To make L1 wound 6 turns of #24 enameled wire on a 10mm air former for frequency 60 - 80 MHz For 150 - 180 MHz wound 4 turns and for 180 - 200MHz wound 2 turns.

# This circuit operates with 9V power supply
# When you build this circuit you have to build this on a little space.
# The power of this circuit is 80mW
# use a pcb to build this circuit diagram.
# This is only for educational purpose.We can bear any responsibility of this If you misused this.
# This circuit transmit only video signals .If you want to send sound signals you can use an audio transmitter

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20 Watt Class A Power Amplifier Circuit

A single-ended Class-A amplifier is essentially one where there is only one active driven output device. The passive "load" may be a resistor, an inductor (or transformer) or - as in this amplifier - a current sink. Of the three basic options, the current sink offers the highest linearity for the lowest cost, so is the ideal choice.





20W class A power amplifier circuit


Some esoteric (some might say idiosyncratic) designs use inductors or 1:1 transformers, but these are bulky and very expensive. Unless made to the utmost standards of construction, they will invariably have a negative effect on the sound quality, since the losses are frequency dependent and non-linear.

This amp uses the basic circuitry of the 60W power amp (see Index), but modified for true Class-A operation - it should be pretty nice! This amp has been built by several readers, and the reports I have received have been very positive.

With simulations, everything appears to be as expected, but although I have yet to actually build it and test it out thoroughly, no-one has had any problems so far. Using +/-20 Volt supplies - either conventional, regulated or using a capacitance multiplier, it should actually be capable of about 22 W before clipping, but expect to use a big heatsink - this amp will run hot.
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230V Flasher Circuit diagram

This circuit operates with 230v.you can use this circuit to decorate your parties.I think this will be a wonderful circuit to you all. Here DIAC ER 900 and Triac BTW 11-400.






230V Flasher Circuit diagram

230V Flasher Circuit diagram

Note:
# Be careful when you deal with 230V
# Build this circuit on a PCB
# Use only mentioned values.

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Eight Band Sub-Woofer Graphic Equaliser

Your sub is installed and set up as best you can, but you can't quite get it to sound right. Some frequencies are too prominent, while others seem subdued. If this sounds familiar, then this equaliser is what you need to fix it. It is not a panacea, and will not cure an impossible room, but the majority of lumps and bumps in the subwoofer response will respond very well to an equaliser as described here.



The unit is an 8 band variation on the expandable equaliser described in the Project Pages, and is dedicated to its task. Boards can be stacked to get more bands if desired, but the arrangement shown will be quite sufficient for most installations.



Eight Band Sub-Woofer Graphic Equaliser




Photo of Completed P84 Board



The equaliser is a constant Q design, so unlike most "ordinary" equalisers, it does not have a very low Q at low settings of boost and cut. This is a major problem with the standard (graphic) equaliser circuit, and is completely avoided by the constant Q version. Using the Multiple Feedback Bandpass design, these filters can be designed for any (reasonable) frequency and Q desired. As a 1/3 Octave equaliser, the filter Q should be 4.3, but I have deliberately lowered this to 4 for this design to allow a little overlap.



While there will always be "that" room which defies all attempts to make anything sound halfway decent, this EQ will dispose of the majority of problems likely to be encountered.
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Diagram Fluorescent Tube Basics

While they have been with us for many years, fluorescent lamps remain somewhat mysterious to most people. This isn't really surprising, since their operation isn't simple. The tube itself contains a mixture of gases, but the active ingredient is mercury. When operated as an arc, mercury vapour emits a vast amount of short-wave ultraviolet light. This is invisible, but phosphors on the inside of the tube itself fluoresce when struck by UV, and are designed to emit visible light. Most of the remaining UV light is absorbed by the glass, which is opaque to ultraviolet (this is why you can't get a suntan from behind a glass window). Refer to Figure 1 to follow the explanation. This also shows a representation of the fitting that was used for the illumination tests. For all tests, only the centre tube was installed, with the others removed to ensure that each lamp was operating under near identical conditions.



Fluorescent Tube Basics


Figure 1 - Wiring Diagram For a Conventional "Troffer" (Fluorescent Light Fitting)



In order to start the arc inside the tube, a starter is used. This is a small neon lamp, with a bimetallic strip contact mechanism built in. When power is first applied, the neon conducts a small current - enough to heat the bimetallic strip, and this causes the switch to close. Once closed, current flows through the filaments at each end of the tube via the ballast, bringing them to working temperature. The ballast limits the current to a safe value. The filaments themselves are fairly rugged, and are typically around 2 Ohms resistance each.



While the switch in the starter is closed, there is no current flow through the neon gas in the starter. The bimetal strip cools and the contacts open. When current drawn through an inductor is suddenly interrupted, a high voltage is generated as the magnetic field collapses. This high voltage will (hopefully) strike the arc in the tube. As most people will have noticed, fluoros usually flicker a few times when turned on. This is usually because the initial strike is insufficient to maintain the arc because the gas temperature is too low. After a few strikes, the temperature is high enough that the arc maintains itself. Maximum light output is usually not achieved for around 5 minutes, but the difference is not very noticeable with tubes in reasonably good condition.



Once the arc is struck (and maintained), the ballast has a new task. An arc has negative resistance, so as the voltage across the tube falls, the current increases. The ballast limits the current to a safe value, as determined by the tube's ratings. With a continuous arc, the voltage across the tube is too low to allow the neon gas in the starter to conduct, so the starter is effectively bypassed. Old tubes will often be unable to maintain an arc, and this is why they flash and flicker, with the starter constantly opening and closing because the arc is not self-sustaining. Since AC is applied to the tube, the arc actually stops and re-strikes on each half cycle, causing the light to flicker at 100 (or 120) Hz. This is normally not visible, but a tube at the end of its life may only conduct fully in one direction. This causes a 50/60Hz flicker that is often visible and annoying to some people.



Because the ballast is an inductor, it should dissipate no power, but this can never be the case in reality. Inductors are wound with copper wire, which has resistance. If nice thick wire were used, this resistance could be minimised, but to do so is very expensive. A compromise is reached where ballast losses are deemed "reasonable", and cause the temperature rise due to power loss to remain within allowable limits. New regulations will soon specify the maximum allowable power loss in ballasts, which will see a return to larger (and more expensive) types than we commonly see today.



Finally, a capacitor is (or should be) installed in parallel with the incoming mains. This is sized to suit the ballast inductance and supply frequency. The capacitive reactance of the PFC (Power Factor Correction) cap should exactly balance out the inductive reactance of the ballast. If this is done properly, the power factor will be 1 - a perfect result. This cannot happen with a fluorescent lamp though, because the current drawn is not linear. The voltage across the tube is a reasonable approximation to a squarewave because of the arc characteristics, and the maximum achievable power factor is normally around 0.9 (90%). Typical fittings manage 0.85 or so (some are better than others).



This means that the current drawn from the mains will be 10% higher than necessary to produce the lamp's rated power. This means that for a 36W fluorescent lamp, the minimum attainable current will be around 190mA at 230V because of ballast losses. The ideal current (if power factor correction were perfect) would be 174mA, allowing for a total typical load of 40W.



Fluorescent Tube Basics


Figure 1A - Wiring Diagram For a "Lead-Lag" Fluorescent Fitting



For many commercial and industrial installations, the 'lead-lag' circuit shown above is common. By including the power factor correction cap in series with one of the ballasts, the power factor is brought to around 0.85 as with the approach shown above, but the capacitor is smaller and thus cheaper than would be the case if the ballasts were in parallel.



Note that where 120V (60Hz) mains voltages are used, you may find that ballast is actually an auto-transformer. This is used because the voltage is not quite high enough to ensure reliable operation, and the auto-transformer configuration boosts the voltage. Figures 1 and 1A are for fittings operating from 220-230V, which need no voltage boost for normal operation. Predictably, the circuits for auto-transformer ballasts are different from those shown here, but similar techniques are used.
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Circuit diagram Long time LED Flasher

The special thing of this circuit is this circuit can light up a LED more than the normal time.Sometimes it will light up our LED more than one month.so I suppose this would be a good news for you guys.Here I have used very common Transistor 2N3904.When I was making this circuit I turned about  20 turns around the toroid. the wire was a small circuit wire.   






 


Note
# Build this circuit on a PCB
 # Don't use more than 1.5V
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Simple Touch Switch diagram

This is a simple touch circuit diagram.I think you can use this for many purposes.I have used this circuit as a security circuit device.Here I have used very common Transistors   2N 5458 N and 2N2222 to gain the signal .2N3906 Transistor work as a switch here.




Note 
# Build this circuit on a PCB
# Use a copper plate to touch senseer 
# Don't supply more than12V

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Automatic light activated switch circuit

The circuit can be used for switching OFF a particular lamp or group of lamps in response to the varying ambient light levels. The unit once built can be used for switching OFF a lamp when dawn breaks and switching it ON when dusk sets in. The power supply is a standard transformer, bridge, capacitor network, which supplies a clean DC to the circuit for executing the proposed actions.



Automatic light activated switch circuit

Automatic light activated switch circuit schematic



The LDR must be placed outside the box, meaning its sensing surface should be exposed toward the ambient area from where the light level is required to be sensed. The circuit can be used as an automatic street light controller system or a simple light activated switch.
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TV Diagram remote tester



Sometimes you are unable to check whether your TV remote is working or not.Not only T.V remote you can check any IR signals.Here I have used very common  transistor BC 558  


 
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3 in 1 FlashLight Circuit Diagram


Want to avoid the problem of carrying three different flashlights to perform a test? Why don’t you try integrating Ultra Violet, Infra Red and visible light together in one flashlight? Read on to know more about this.



3 in 1 FlashLight Circuit


The multi-tasking flashlight is basically composed of a metallic case, a switch, cables and connections, four 9V batteries and three different LED heads that provide the desired light beam. For the construction of this flashlight, LedEngin’s LZ4-40 is recommended. This comes with a very wide wavelength that includes infra red and ultra violet light. Distinct visible light color temperature can also be found



The first step is to build the body of the flashlight, using an aluminum tube. Next come the drilling and cutting for switches and covers. Once the body is finished, the work on the constant current driver should be completed, adding the proper terminals for the batteries and the base for the LED heads.



3 in 1 FlashLight Circuit


Once all the power source wiring is completed and insulated with heat shrink tubing, the LED heads are assembled and connected. These are basically composed of an aluminum cap. The LED base and the power source connections come from the batteries.
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12V Battery Checker Circuit

This is a 12V battery checker circuit that uses 3 LEDs that light up at their respective voltages. The red LED lights up when the battery voltage is between 8 to 10V, the orange one at voltages between 10.5V to 12V and the green one when the battery voltage is above 12.5V.This is a tried and tested battery checker circuit using one NPN and one PNP transistor. A PCB is given along with the schematic.


 


12V BATTERY CHECKER CIRCUIT

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Laptop Power Supply Diagram for Car

Laptops today are the what is called notebook computers, which now is becoming popular. Laptops can be brought into the bag making it suitable for business trips. And even as the “home entertainment center” laptop is more convenient, because it takes a little space. However, in my opinion, there is one very important which become shortcomings – most laptops which powered by an electric voltage of 19V, making it impossible for them to direct the power to an integrated network vehicle (12-14V). It is very important, especially when laptop battery capacity is not more than two hours in active mode. And what if you, at some object in the whole day want to process some data, but no other useful sources of electricity?



This is a description of the relatively simple psu laptop circuit adapter (laptop DC-DC converter), which increases the voltage-board vehicle network to 19V, needed to supply the laptop. And maintain this voltage stable.



The adapter is based on chip LM3524, which is a high-frequency switching DC-DC converter with pumped inductance and output current up to 200mA, the output current which, in this scheme, will increased to 3.5-4A using a powerful transistor switch (on transistors VT1 and VT2).



Consider the circuit carefully. Voltage on-board vehicle network goes to supply circuit and output circuits D1 through key fuse F1 and low-resistance wire resistor R6, mitigating start the generator and the circuit operates in overload protection. Current consumption chip D1 determines the voltage at R6, enter the inputs of overload switching – Conclusions 4 and 5 D1. The voltage on the R6 increases with what greater than the load current (and actual current consumption from the source).



A pair of output transistors connected in parallel circuits D1 (emitter terminals 14 and 11, collectors – the outputs of 12 and 13). Loaded with collectors of output transistors a resistor R10. With this resistor pulses are fed to the non-inverting switch on transistors VT1 and VT2. Transistor VT1 is the pre-inverter, and s as the output transistor VT2 uses a powerful field-effect transistor with a small key resistance of the open channel. Due to the low impedance of the open channel, in spite of considerable current, power dissipated in it is small, and almost no heat sink required. Exclusively “to ensure” it is installed on the radiator plate output transistor Vertical TV type 3 USTST (plate size of approximately 25h35mm).



Pumping voltage is on the inductor L1. Diode VD2 rectifies the pulses of self-inductance and across the capacitor C11, there is a constant voltage.



In order to stabilize the output voltage using a comparator inputs are, pins 1 and 2 D1. On pin 2 through a divider R1-R2 is fed from the internal reference voltage regulator circuit (output of the stabilizer, – output 16). At the output a voltage is applied from the output of the power supply, low divider R3-R4-R5. The value of the output voltage depends on the ratio of the divider apart, and set trimmer R4 (in fact, ranging from 15 to 22 volts). It is desirable that the resistor R4 was multi-turn – so its installation is more accurate and more stable.



Below Circuit Laptop Power Supply for Car









Laptop Power Supply for Car

 


note
The circuit relatively simple circuit adapter (DC-DC converter), which increases the voltage-board vehicle network to 19V, needed to supply the laptop. And maintain this voltage stable. The adapter is based on chip LM3524, which is a high-frequency switching DC-DC converter with pumped inductance and output current up to 200mA, the output current which, in this scheme, will increased to 3.5-4A using a powerful transistor switch (on transistors VT1 and VT2).

  • The coil L1 is wound on a ferrite magnetic core ring outer diameter of 28mm. A total of 30 turns
  • Diode VD2 (Schottky diode) should allow a direct constant current of at least 5A.
  • BU278 transistor can be replaced by any other similar transistor, for example, BUZ21L
  • LM3524 chip is desirable to select a DlP-body (easier to solder). You can replace a chip SG3524, but other production.
  • Resistor R6 – wire, with a capacity not less than 2W.
  • All capacitors must be rated for a voltage below 25V.
  • When connected to a vehicle on-board network, you must strictly observe polarity. Otherwise, the inverter fails. Optimally – Connect directly to battery terminals. In this case it will be a minimum of interference. Converter housing must be shielded.
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LM317 Calculator

This calculator helps you set the output voltage of LM317 regulator IC by simply replacing the value of both R1 and R2. The value of R1 usually varies from 100 t0 1000 ohms while R2 is of any value and preferably a trimmer type or potentiometer. The output voltaged desired can be calculated using this formula.

Vout = Vref*(1+(R2/R1))+ (Iadj*R2)where Vref = 1.25V and Iadj = 100uA.

The first calculator allows you to set the value of both R1 and R2 to determine the output voltage regulated by LM317. The next calculator allows you to set your desired output voltage and value of R1 to determine the value of R2.



LM217 Calculator

 

find here
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Super Boost USB Charger Circuit

This design is inspired by the Minty Boost but it fixes some of the issues that I had with it. The Minty Boost is limited to 600mA due to the LT1302 chip. The Super Boost uses the LM2700 which can push up to 3.6A. This will enable i-devices to draw up to there maximum of 1A which will enable a faster recharge. 

Super Boost USB Charger Circuit
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Electronic Fuse for DC Short Circuit Protection

This is an electronic fuse that protects the load against short circuit. Relays must be chosen with a voltage value equals to the input voltage. Don’t omit using the 100uF capacitor with appropriate voltage value with respect to the input voltage. If you can’t provide, you can use C106 instead of BRX46.



Electronic Fuse for DC Short Circuit Protection



You can adjust the current with using 10K potentiometer. If you will use the fuse with very high currents, lower the 0R6 5W resistor value (ex. 0R47, 0R33, 0R22 or 0R1). Watt value of the resistor should be increased also
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Timer Garage Door Circuit

Because I’m old school, I wanted to build a Garage Door Closing circuit without relying on integrated configurations (555 timer etc) to keep it simplistic. The circuit closes the garage door after two minutes with C3 and four minutes with the addition of C2. The timer relay is surprisingly accurate (+/- five seconds). Another feature is to ensure that the garage door actually did close, such as if it’s stopped mid-operation by the user.



Timer perfboard



Description:

S3 (magnetic N.C.) is located at the garage door and activates the circuit when the garage door opens.

RL1 is the reset timer. It’s maintained in the “on” position for two minutes by C3 while the trigger capacitor, C4, is charged. RL2 is the conduit, directing C4 to either RL3 or R1 to ground when off. Purpose of R1 is to prevent arching across contacts and a fast discharge. RL3’s contacts are connected to the Garage Door’s Momentary Switch and is sustained “on”  for a half second by C5.



When C3 discharges to the cutoff voltage of RL1, it turns off and resets. C4 charges C5, which turns on RL3 and initiates the garage door. Because C4 does not have the time to fully discharge, it should be at least three times the value of C5. If it does not close, RL1 in countdown mode will reset and open the door. When it resets again, the door will close.



Turning off the circuit, C1 maintains RL1 “on” slightly longer to ensure that RL2 is set to discharge C4 to R1. If this is not done and C4 is not discharged, the garage door will not open until it discharges naturally and falls below the trigger voltage for RL3.  The circuit would be useless for several days.



Timer Garage Door Circuit



Notes:

-Time delay of RL1 after reset drops 15 seconds because of the short charge time.

-To boost RL3 to a one-second delay, increase C5 to 1000uF.

-D2, D3, and D4 isolate the crucial sections of the circuit.

-Relays do not turn off at the same rate. I conducted a test by tripping the circuit on and off at a high rate and discovered the possibility of C4 turning on RL3. The addition of C1 solved this.

*Author: Roland Segers (speedmail-at-gmail.com)
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Pushbutton Relay Selector Circuit Diagrams



This circuit was designed for use in a hifi showroom, where a choice of speakers could be connected to a stereo amplifier for comparative purposes. It could be used for other similar applications where just one of an array of devices needs to be selected at any one time. A bank of mechanically interlocked DPDT pushbutton switches is the simplest way to perform this kind of selection but these switches aren’t readily available nowadays and are quite expensive. This simple circuit performs exactly the same job. It can be configured with any number of outputs between two and nine, simply by adding pushbutton switches and relay driver circuits to the currently unused outputs of IC2 (O5-O9).



Gate IC1a is connected as a relax-ation oscillator which runs at about 20kHz. Pulses from the oscillator are fed to IC1b, where they are gated with a control signal from IC1c. The result is inverted by IC1d and fed into the clock input (CP0) of IC2. Initially, we assume that the reset switch (S1) has been pressed, which forces a logic high at the O0 output (pin 3) of IC2 and logic lows at all other outputs (O1-O9). As the relay driver transistors (Q1-Q4) are switched by these outputs, none of the relays will be energised after a reset and none of the load devices (speakers, etc) will be selected. Now consider what happens if you press one of the selector switches (S2-S5, etc). For example, pressing S5 connects the O4 output (pin 10) of IC2 to the input (pin 9) of IC1c, pulling it low.



Circuit diagram:

Pushbutton Relay Selector Circuit Diagram



Pushbutton Relay Selector Circuit Diagram



This causes the output (pin 10) to go high, which in turn pulls the input of IC1b (pin 5) high and allows clock pulses to pass through to decade counter IC2. The 4017B counts up until a high level appears at its O4 output. This high signal is fed via S5 to pin 9 of NAND gate IC1c, which causes its output (pin 10) to go low. This low signal also appears on pin 5 of IC1b, which is then inhibited from passing further clock pulses on its other input (pin 6) through to its output (pin 4), thus halting the counter. So, the counter runs just long enough to make the output connected to the switch that is pressed go high. This sequence repeats regardless of which selector switch you press, so the circuit functions as an electronic interlock system.



Each relay driver circuit is a 2N7000 FET switch with its gate driven from one output of IC2 via a 100W resistor. The relay coil is connected from the drain to the +12V supply rail, with a reverse diode spike suppressor across each coil. If you want visual indication of the selected output, an optional indicator LED and series resistor can be connected across each relay coil, as shown. For selecting pairs of stereo speakers, we’d suggest the use of relays like the Jaycar SY-4052. These operate from 12V and have DPDT contacts rated for 5A. Note that although four selector switches are shown in the circuit, only two relay drivers are shown because of limited space. For a 4-way selector, identical relay drivers would be driven from the O2 and O3 outputs of IC2.

Author: Jim Rowe - Copyright: Silicon Chip Electronics

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Stereo 80Watt Audio Amplifier TDA7294

The described circuit uses two TDA7294 for use in stereo (2 x 80 watts) and bridge mode (1x 180 watts), configure this setting only four drivers.



Stereo 80Watt Audio Amplifier TDA7294



To facilitate the installation of each fuel. The performance is a kind of symmetry with a simple bridge rectifier 6A, and two large electrolytic capacitors, which 10000µF 22000µF/50v. This power supply for two modules. The processor is recommended 22-0-22 to 28-0-28 / 5 A, depending on the quality of the transformer is at least 6 amps is recommended.

PCB design Stereo 80Watt Audio Amplifier TDA7294


 


PCB layout Stereo 80Watt Audio Amplifier TDA7294



The TDA7294 is a monolithic integrated circuit in MULTIWATT15 package for use as audio class AB amplifier in Hi-Fi field applications (stereo, powered speakers, car, high-end TV) is provided. Many thanks to the wide range of voltage and current capacity he is able to offer the highest property taxes in both 4O and 8O, to offer even in the presence of poor supply regulation, with the rejection of high-voltage power supply. The built-in mute with delay sounds easier to avoid the remote mode off.
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Amplifier Circuit Diagram Class-A Headphone

400mW RMS into 32 Ohm load, Single-rail Supply - Optional Tilt Control

This design is derived from the Portable Headphone Amplifier featuring an NPN/PNP compound pair emitter follower output stage. An improved output driving capability is gained by making this a push-pull Class-A arrangement. Output power can reach 427mW RMS into a 32 Ohm load at a fixed standing current of 100mA. The single voltage gain stage allows the easy implementation of a shunt-feedback circuitry giving excellent frequency stability.



Tilt control:

The mentioned shunt-feedback configuration also allows the easy addition of frequency dependent networks in order to obtain an useful, unobtrusive, switchable Tilt control (optional). When SW1 is set in the first position a gentle, shelving bass lift and treble cut is obtained. The central position of SW1 allows a flat frequency response, whereas the third position of this switch enables a shelving treble lift and bass cut.





Circuit diagram:



Class-A Headphone Amplifier Circuit



Class-A Headphone Amplifier Circuit Diagram



Parts:

P1 = 22K Dual gang Log Potentiometer (ready for Stereo)

R1 = 15K 1/4W Resistor

R2 = 220K 1/4W Resistor

R3 = 100K 1/2W Trimmer Cermet

R4 = 33K 1/4W Resistor

R5 = 68K 1/4W Resistor

R6 = 50K 1/2W Trimmer Cermet

R7 = 10K 1/4W Resistor

R8 = 47K 1/4W Resistors

R9 = 47K 1/4W Resistors

R10 = 2R2 1/4W Resistors

R11 = 2R2 1/4W Resistors

R12 = 4K7 1/4W Resistor

R13 = 4R7 1/2W Resistor

R14 = 1K2 1/4W Resistor

R15 = 330K 1/4W Resistors (Optional)

R16 = 680K 1/4W Resistor (Optional)

R17 = 220K 1/4W Resistors (Optional)

R18 = 330K 1/4W Resistors (Optional)

R19 = 220K 1/4W Resistors (Optional)

R20 = 22K 1/4W Resistors (Optional)

R21 = 22K 1/4W Resistors (Optional)



C1 = 10µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitors

C2 = 10µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitors

C3 = 10µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitors

C4 = 10µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitors

C5 = 220µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitors

C6 = 100nF 63V Polyester Capacitors

C7 = 220µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitors

C8 = 2200µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor

C9 = 1nF 63V Polyester Capacitors (Optional)

C10 = 470pF 63V Polystyrene or Ceramic Capacitor (Optional)

C13 = 15nF 63V Polyester Capacitor (Optional)

C11 = 1nF 63V Polyester Capacitors (Optional)

C12 = 1nF 63V Polyester Capacitors (Optional)



D1 = 5mm. or 3mm. LED

D2 = 1N4002 100V 1A Diodes

D3 = 1N4002 100V 1A Diodes



Q1 = BC550C 45V 100mA Low noise High gain NPN Transistors

Q2 = BC550C 45V 100mA Low noise High gain NPN Transistors

Q3 = BC560C 45V 100mA Low noise High gain PNP Transistor

Q4 = BD136 45V 1.5A PNP Transistor

Q5 = BD135 45V 1.5A NPN Transistor



IC1 = 7815 15V 1A Positive voltage regulator IC

T1 = 220V Primary, 15+15V Secondary-5VA Mains transformer



SW1 = 4 poles 3 ways rotary Switch (ready for Stereo)

SW2 = SPST slide or toggle Switch



J1 = RCA audio input socket

J2 = 6mm. or 3mm. Stereo Jack socket

PL1 = Male Mains plug





Notes:



  • Q4, Q5 and IC1 must be fitted with a small U-shaped heatsink.

  • For a Stereo version of this circuit, all parts must be doubled except P1, IC1, R14, D1, D2, D3, C8, T1, SW1, SW2, J2 and PL1.

  • If the Tilt Control is not needed, omit SW1, all resistors from R15 onwards and all capacitors from C9 onwards. Connect the rightmost terminal of R1 to the Base of Q1.

  • Before setting quiescent current rotate the volume control P1 to the minimum, Trimmer R6 to zero resistance and Trimmer R3 to about the middle of its travel.

  • Connect a suitable headphone set or, better, a 33 Ohm 1/2W resistor to the amplifier output.

  • Connect a Multimeter, set to measure about 10Vdc fsd, across the positive end of C5 and the negative ground.

  • Switch on the supply and rotate R3 in order to read about 7.7-7.8V on the Multimeter display.

  • Switch off the supply, disconnect the Multimeter and reconnect it, set to measure at least 200mA fsd, in series to the positive supply of the amplifier.

  • Switch on the supply and rotate R6 slowly until a reading of about 100mA is displayed.

  • Check again the voltage at the positive end of C5 and readjust R3 if necessary.

  • Wait about 15 minutes, watch if the current is varying and readjust if necessary.

  • Those lucky enough to reach an oscilloscope and a 1KHz sine wave generator, can drive the amplifier to the maximum output power and adjust R3 in order to obtain a symmetrical clipping of the sine wave displayed.


 




Technical data:

Output power (1KHz sinewave):



  • 32 Ohm: 427mW RMS

  • 64 Ohm: 262mW RMS

  • 100 Ohm: 176mW RMS

  • 300 Ohm: 64mW RMS

  • 600 Ohm: 35mW RMS

  • 2000 Ohm: 10mW RMS


 




Sensitivity:



  • 140mV input for 1V RMS output into 32 Ohm load (31mW)

  • 500mV input for 3.5V RMS output into 32 Ohm load (380mW)

  • Total harmonic distortion into 32 Ohm load @ 1KHz:

  • 1V RMS 0.005% 3V RMS 0.015% 3.65V RMS (onset of clipping) 0.018%

  • Total harmonic distortion into 32 Ohm load @ 10KHz:

  • 1V RMS 0.02% 3V RMS 0.055% 3.65V RMS (onset of clipping) 0.1%

  • Unconditionally stable on capacitive loads
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Inverter Circuit Diagram 9V to 13.5kV

This high voltage source is formed by an inverter, around the transistor, which provides pulses of 150V to the inverter formed by the thyristor and capacitor in series with the transformer 2. This pulse output of 4.5kV to be multiplied with the network so as to achieve the output voltage of 13.5kV.  Neon lamps (marked LN) form the thyristor triggering pulses.



The transformer T1 has a ratio 3000:500 O of the type used in audio output transistor. T2 is a transformer flash lamp trigger a secondary 6kV. This inverter circuit requires a 9VDC power supply with current 0.01A



9V to 13.5kV Inverter Circuit



Caution:

Apply this equipment on the human body can cause serious physical injury to death. Don’t use in humans.
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